Archive for May, 2011
AbsoluteRSS WordPress plugin for translating relative paths to absolute paths in the feed.
This plugin simply makes most relative URI’s in feeds (not posts) absolute links rather than relative. Also this plugin will fix links with relative paths so that they point to the correct location.
Google chrome being one of the super fast browser offers many extension (same as Firefox add ons). Google chrome extension gallery is about to cross the Firefox add on gallery in terms of number of extensions available for the browser.
TV Chrome is a Google chrome extension plugin that lets you watch live TV on Google chrome web browser. There are 2780 free channels available which is sorted according to countries and categories. TV Chrome allows you to watch thousands of TV channels freely on the Internet and it contains most updated list of the channel.
With so many options available to your hand you can enjoy virtually any TV show on your browser. Almost all the channels available in TV Chrome is made free or it is free to view. Enjoy watching TV on your browser with TV Chrome Google chrome extension!!!
Download TV Chrome Google Chrome Extension from here
Search engine giant Google has launched Google wallet service here on New York a method to pay via your android smartphone. Along with wallet service Google has come up with an innovative initiative, Google Offers, for mobile coupons, working with partners such as Citi, MasterCard, First Data and Sprint, as well as merchants that include Subway, Macy’s, Walgreens and American Eagle.
The wallet and offers services likely to change the method of commerce in the coming years, by making our wallet obsolete, if the services get the right momentum it needed. The Google wallet is an android application which is based upon a technology called near field communication (NFC)chip found in some of the currently existing and many of the upcoming smartphones. NFC, for Near Field Communications, is the short-range wireless technology built into a chip that can be used in handsets that helps make contact-less payment happens. Google wallet which consists of services like digital credit card, coupons, receipt, loyalty cards will make a smartphone a money handling and exchanging system.
Google will begin initial testing of Google Wallet in New York and San Francisco in a couple of weeks and after that the service will be launched globally. At the start, a Google Wallet will give access to a Citi MasterCard. Google also provides their own prepaid cards to pay for purchase and to take advantage of Google offers, using Mountain View company’s online discount program.The first stores to accept NFC payments will be Macy’s, America Eagle Outfitters and fast-food chain, Subway. Google Wallet will initially work with Google’s Nexus S 4G smartphone from Sprint, eventually it will be expanded to other handsets equipped with NFC chipYou will be able to pay, redeem coupons, use discounts or you may receive special loyalty points which can be used in a later point of time.
Film Tracker v5.0, a free movie database. It can help you keep track of your far-flung video collection with more than 19 customizable data fields. Like all such databases, you must enter the information bit by bit, but Film Tracker’s efficient entry form makes that job easy, and it can also import and export data in CSV files.
Date added: March 30, 2011
Operating system: Windows 95/98/Me/2000/XP/Vista
Our body weight is determined by the amount of energy that we take in as food and the amount of energy we expend in the activities of our day. Energy is measured in calories. If your weight remains constant, you are probably taking in the same amount of calories that you burn each day. If you’re slowly gaining weight over time, it is likely that your caloric intake is greater than the number of calories you burn through your daily activities.
- Everyone is in control of the amount of food he or she consumes each day, so our intake of calories is something we can control. To a major degree, we can also control our output of energy, or the number of calories we burn each day. The number of calories we burn each day is dependent upon
- our basal metabolic rate (BMR), the number of calories we burn per hour simply by being alive and maintaining body functions
- and our level of physical activity.
For some people, due to genetic (inherited) factors or other conditions, the resting metabolic rate (BMR) can be slightly higher or lower than average. Our weight also plays a role in determining how many calories we burn at rest — the more calories are required to maintain your body in its present state, the greater your body weight. A 100-pound person requires less energy (food) to maintain body weight than a person who weighs 200 pounds.
How do you lose weight?
The most effective method for weight loss is reducing the number of calories you consume while increasing the number of calories you burn through physical activity. To lose 1 pound, you need an expenditure of approximately 3,500 calories. You can achieve this either by cutting back on your food intake, by increasing physical activity, or ideally, by doing both.
For example, if you consume 500 extra calories per day for one week without changing your activity level, you will gain 1 pound in weight (seven days multiplied by 500 calories equals 3,500 calories, or the number of calories resulting in a 1-pound weight gain). Likewise, if you eat 500 fewer calories each day for a week or burn 500 calories per day through exercise for one week, you will lose 1 pound.
Examples of calorie content of some popular foods and beverages include the following:
one slice of original-style crust pepperoni pizza – 230 calories
- one glass of dry white wine – 160 calories
- one can of cola – 150 calories
- one quarter-pound hamburger with cheese – 500 calories
- one jumbo banana nut muffin – 580 calories
Any activities you do throughout the day are added to your BMR (basal metabolic rate) to determine the total number of calories you burn each day. For example, a 170-pound person who spends 45 minutes walking briskly will burn about 300 calories. The same time spent on housecleaning burns about 200 calories, and mowing the lawn for 45 minutes consumes around 275 calories. For more, please read the Calories Burned During Fitness Activities article.
How fast should you expect to lose weight?
Most experts agree that a safe, healthy rate of weight loss is one to 1 ½ pounds per week. Modification of eating habits along with regular exercise is the most effective way to lose weight over the long term. It is also the ideal way to ensure that the weight stays off.
Starvation diets may result in rapid weight loss, but this weight loss is almost impossible to maintain for most people. When food intake is severely restricted (below approximately 1,200 calories per day), the body begins to adapt to this state of poor nutrition by reducing its metabolic rate, potentially making it even more difficult to lose weight. It is also possible to experience hunger pangs, bouts of hypoglycemia, headaches, and mood changes from overly stringent dieting. These symptoms can result in binge eating and weight gain. Since a highly restrictive diet is almost impossible to maintain for a long time, people who attempt to starve themselves thin often start to gain weight again when they stop dieting.
What are the risks of ovarian cysts during pregnancy?
Ovarian cysts are sometimes discovered during pregnancy. In most cases, they are found as an incidental finding at the time of routine prenatal ultrasound screening. The majority of ovarian cysts found during pregnancy are benign tumors that do not require surgical intervention. However, surgery may be indicated if there is a suspicion of malignancy, if an acute complication such as rupture or torsion (twisting of the cyst, disrupting the blood supply) develops, or if the size of the cyst is likely to present problems with the pregnancy.
Ovarian Cysts At A Glance
- Ovarian cysts closed, sac-like structures within the ovary that are filled with a liquid, semisolid, or gaseous substance.
- Ovarian cysts form for numerous reasons.
- When a cyst causes symptoms, pain in the belly or pelvis is by far the most common one.
- Most cysts are diagnosed by ultrasound.
The treatment of ovarian cysts depends upon the individual situation and varies from observation and monitoring to surgical procedures.
Most ovarian cysts are never noticed and resolve without women ever realizing that they are there. When a cyst causes symptoms, pain in the belly or pelvis is by far the most common one.
The pain can be caused from:
- rupture of the cyst,
- rapid growth and stretching,
- bleeding into the cyst, or
twisting of the cyst around its blood supply (known as torsion).If the cyst has reached a large size, other symptoms may arise as a result of pressure or distortion of adjacent anatomical structures. These symptoms can include abdominal fullness or bloating, indigestion, feeling full after eating only a small amount (early satiety), feeling an urge to defecate or having difficult bowel movements, or pain with sexual intercourse.
How are ovarian cysts diagnosed?
Sometimes ovarian cysts may be noticed by a health care practitioner during a bimanual examination of the pelvis. If a cyst is suspected based upon the symptoms of physical examination, imaging techniques are used. Most cysts are diagnosed by ultrasound, which is the best imaging technique for detecting ovarian cysts. Ultrasound is an imaging method that uses sound waves to produce an image of structures within the body. Ultrasound imaging is painless and causes no harm.
Cysts can also be detected with other imaging methods, such as CT scan or MRI scan (magnetic resonance imaging).
How can the physician decide if an ovarian cyst is dangerous?
If a woman is in her 40′s, or younger, and has regular menstrual periods, most ovarian masses are “functioning ovarian cysts,” which are not really abnormal. Examples include follicular cysts and corpus luteum cysts. These are related to the process of ovulation that happens with the menstrual cycle. They usually disappear on their own during a future menstrual cycle. Therefore, especially in women in their 20′s and 30′s, these cysts are watched for a few menstrual cycles to verify that they disappear.
Because oral contraceptives work in part by preventing ovulation, physicians will not generally expect women who are taking oral contraceptives to have common “functioning ovarian cysts.” Thus, women who develop ovarian cysts while taking oral contraceptives may be advised against simple observation; rather, they may receive closer monitoring with pelvic ultrasound or, less commonly, surgical exploration of the ovary. Likewise, functioning ovarian cysts are rare in women after they have reached menopause.
Other factors are helpful in evaluating ovarian cysts (besides the woman’s age, or whether she is taking oral contraceptives). A cyst that looks like it is just one simple sac of fluid on the ultrasound is more likely to be benign than a cyst with solid tissue in it. So the ultrasound appearance also plays a role in determining the level of suspicion regarding a serious ovarian growth.
Ovarian cancer is rare in women younger than age 40. After age 40, an ovarian cyst has a higher chance of being cancerous than before age 40, although most ovarian cysts are benign even after age 40. CA-125 blood testing can be used as a marker of ovarian cancer, but it does not always represent cancer when it is abnormal. CA-125 is a protein that is elevated in the bloodstream of approximately 80% of women with advanced ovarian cancer.
First, many benign conditions in women of childbearing age can cause the CA-125 level to be elevated, so CA-125 is not a specific test, especially in younger women. Pelvic infections, uterine fibroids, pregnancy, benign (hemorrhagic) ovarian cysts, and liver disease are all conditions that may elevate blood CA-125 levels in the absence of ovarian cancer.
Second, even if the woman has an ovarian cancer, not all ovarian cancers will cause the CA-125 level to be elevated. Furthermore, CA-125 levels can be abnormally high in women with breast, lung, and pancreatic cancer.
The ovary is one of a pair of reproductive glands in women that are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus. Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries produce eggs (ova) and female hormones. The ovaries are the main source of female hormones, which control the development of female body characteristics such as the breasts, body shape, and body hair. They also regulate the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Ovarian cysts are closed, sac-like structures within an ovary that contain a liquid, gaseous, or semisolid substance. The ovary is also referred to as the female gonad.
What causes ovarian cysts?
Ovarian cysts form for numerous reasons. The most common type is a follicular cyst, which results from the growth of a follicle. A follicle is the normal fluid-filled sac that contains an egg. Follicular cysts form when the follicle grows larger than normal during the menstrual cycle and does not open to release the egg. Usually, follicular cysts resolve spontaneously over the course of days to months. Cysts can contain blood (hemorrhagic cysts) from injury or leakage of tiny blood vessels into the egg sac.
Another type of ovarian cyst that is related to the menstrual cycle is a corpus luteum cyst. The corpus luteum is an area of tissue within the ovary that occurs after an egg has been released from a follicle. If a pregnancy doesn’t occur, the corpus luteum usually breaks down and disappears. It may, however, fill with fluid or blood and persist as a cyst on the ovary. Usually, this cyst is found on only one side and produces no symptoms.
Occasionally, the tissues of the ovary develop abnormally to form other body tissues such as hair or teeth. Cysts with these abnormal tissues are called benign cystic teratomas or dermoid cysts.
Endometriosis is a condition in which cells that normally grow inside the uterus (womb), instead grow outside of the uterus. The ovary is a common site for endometriosis. When endometriosis involves the ovary, the area of endometrial tissue may grow and bleed over time, forming a brown-colored cystic area sometimes referred to as a chocolate cyst or endometrioma.
Both benign and malignant tumors of the ovary may also contain cysts. Furthermore, the condition known as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the presence of multiple cysts within both ovaries. PCOS is associated with a number of hormonal problems and is the most common cause of infertility in women.
Infections of the pelvic organs can involve the ovaries and Fallopian tubes. In severe cases, pus-filled cystic spaces may be present on or around the ovary or tubes. These are known as tubo-ovarian abscesses.
Menopause itself is a normal part of life and not a disease that requires treatment. However, treatment of associated symptoms is possible if these become substantial or severe.
- Hormone therapy
- Estrogen and progesterone therapy
Hormone therapy (HT) , also referred to as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT), consists of estrogens or a combination of estrogens and progesterone (progestin). Hormone therapy has been used to control the symptoms of menopause related to declining estrogen levels such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, and HT is still the most effective way to treat these symptoms. But long-term studies (the NIH-sponsored Women’s Health Initiative, or WHI) of women receiving combined hormone therapy with both estrogen and progesterone were halted when it was discovered that these women had an increased risk for heart attack, stroke, and breast cancer when compared with women who did not receive HT. Later studies of women taking estrogen therapy alone showed that estrogen was associated with an increased risk for stroke, but not for heart attack or breast cancer. Estrogen therapy alone, however, is associated with an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus) in postmenopausal women who have not had their uterus surgically removed.
Hormone therapy is available in oral (pill), transdermal form (patch and spray). Transdermal hormone products are already in their active form without the need for “first pass” metabolism in the liver to be converted to an active form. Since transdermal hormone products do not have effects on the liver, this route of administration has become the preferred form for most women. A number of preparations are available for oral and transdermal forms of HT, varying in the both type and amount of hormones in the products.
There has been increasing interest in recent years in the use of so-called “bioidentical” hormone therapy for perimenopausal women. Bioidentical hormone preparations are medications that contain hormones that have the same chemical formula as those made naturally in the body. The hormones are created in a laboratory by altering compounds derived from naturally-occurring plant products. Some of these so-called bioidentical hormone preparations are U.S. FDA-approved and manufactured by drug companies, while others are made at special pharmacies called compounding pharmacies that make the preparations on a case-by-case basis for each patient. These individual preparations are not regulated by the FDA, because compounded products are not standardized.
Like transdermal HT products, bioidentical hormone therapy products are administered transdermally. They are typically applied as cream or gels. Their advocates believe that their use may avoid potentially dangerous side effects of synthetic hormones used in conventional hormone therapy. However, studies to establish the long-term safety and effectiveness of these products have not been carried out.
The decision about hormone therapy, is a very individual decision in which the patient and doctor must take into account the inherent risks and benefits of the treatment along with each woman’s own medical history. It is currently recommended that if hormone therapy is used, it should be used at the smallest effective dose for the shortest possible time. The WHI study findings do not support the use of HT for the prevention of chronic disease.
Oral contraceptive pills
Oral contraceptive pills are another form of hormone therapy often prescribed for women in perimenopause to treat irregular vaginal bleeding.
Prior to treatment, a doctor must exclude other causes of erratic vaginal bleeding. Women in the menopausal transition tend to have considerable breakthrough bleeding when given estrogen therapy. Therefore, oral contraceptives are often given to women in the menopause transition to regulate menstrual periods, relieve hot flashes, as well as to provide contraception. The list of contraindications for oral contraceptives in women going through the menopause transition is the same as that for premenopausal women.
Local (vaginal) hormone and non-hormone treatments
There are also local (meaning applied directly to the vagina) hormonal treatments for the symptoms of vaginal estrogen deficiency. Local treatments include the vaginal estrogen ring, vaginal estrogen cream, or vaginal estrogen tablets. Local and oral estrogen treatments are sometimes combined for this purpose.
Vaginal moisturizing agents such as creams or lotions (for example, K-Y Silk-E Vaginal Moisturizer or KY Liquibeads Vaginal Moisturizer) as well as the use of lubricants during intercourse are non-hormonal options for managing the discomfort of vaginal dryness.
Applying Betadine topically on the outer vaginal area, and soaking in a sitz bath or soaking in a bathtub of warm water may be helpful for relieving symptoms of burning and vaginal pain after intercourse.
It is important to remember that each woman’s experience is highly individual. Some women may experience few or no symptoms of menopause, while others experience multiple physical and psychological symptoms. The extent and severity of symptoms varies significantly among women. These symptoms of menopause and perimenopause are discussed in detail below.
Irregular vaginal bleeding
Irregular vaginal bleeding may occur during menopause. Some women have minimal problems with abnormal bleeding during perimenopause whereas others have unpredictable, excessive bleeding. Menstrual periods (menses) may occur more frequently (meaning the cycle shortens in duration), or they may get farther and farther apart (meaning the cycle lengthens in duration) before stopping. There is no “normal” pattern of bleeding during the perimenopause, and patterns vary from woman to woman. It is common for women in perimenopause to have a period after going for several months without one. There is also no set length of time it takes for a woman to complete the menopausal transition. It is important to remember that all women who develop irregular menses should be evaluated by her doctor to confirm that the irregular menses are due to perimenopause and not as a sign of another medical condition.
The menstrual abnormalities that begin in the perimenopause are also associated with a decrease in fertility, since ovulation has become irregular. However, women who are perimenopausal may still become pregnant until they have reached true menopause (the absence of periods for one year) and should still use contraception if they do not wish to become pregnant.
Hot flashes & night sweats
Hot flashes are common among women undergoing menopause. A hot flash is a feeling of warmth that spreads over the body and is often most pronounced in the head and chest. A hot flash is sometimes associated with flushing and is sometimes followed by perspiration. Hot flashes usually last from 30 seconds to several minutes. Although the exact cause of hot flashes is not fully understood, hot flashes are likely due to a combination of hormonal and biochemical fluctuations brought on by declining estrogen levels.
There is currently no method to predict when hot flashes will begin and how long they will last. Hot flashes occur in up to 40% of regularly menstruating women in their forties, so they may begin before the menstrual irregularities characteristic of menopause even begin. About 80% of women will be finished having hot flashes after five years. Sometimes (in about 10% of women), hot flashes can last as long as 10 years. There is no way to predict when hot flashes will cease, though they tend to decrease in frequency over time. The average woman who has hot flashes will have them for about five years.
Sometimes hot flashes are accompanied by night sweats (episodes of drenching sweats at nighttime). This may lead to awakening and difficulty falling asleep again, resulting in unrefreshing sleep and daytime tiredness.
Vaginal symptoms occur as a result of the lining tissues of the vagina becoming thinner, drier, and less elastic as estrogen levels fall. Symptoms may include vaginal dryness, itching, or irritation and/or pain with sexual intercourse (dyspareunia). The vaginal changes also lead to an increased risk of vaginal infections.
The lining of the urethra (the transport tube leading from the bladder to discharge urine outside the body) also undergoes changes similar to the tissues of the vagina, and becomes drier, thinner, and less elastic with declining estrogen levels. This can lead to an increased risk of urinary tract infection, feeling the need to urinate more frequently, or leakage of urine (urinary incontinence). The incontinence can result from a strong, sudden urge to urinate or may occur during straining when coughing, laughing, or lifting heavy objects.
Emotional and cognitive symptoms
Women in perimenopause often report a variety of thinking (cognitive) and/or emotional symptoms, including fatigue, memory problems, irritability, and rapid changes in mood. It is difficult to precisely determine exactly which behavioral symptoms are due directly to the hormonal changes of menopause. Research in this area has been difficult for many reasons.
Emotional and cognitive symptoms are so common that it is sometimes difficult in a given woman to know if they are due to menopause. The night sweats that may occur during perimenopause can also contribute to feelings of tiredness and fatigue, which can have an effect on mood and cognitive performance. Finally, many women may be experiencing other life changes during the time of perimenopause or after menopause, such as stressful life events, that may also cause emotional symptoms.
Other physical changes
Many women report some degree of weight gain along with menopause. The distribution of body fat may change, with body fat being deposited more in the waist and abdominal area than in the hips and thighs. Changes in skin texture, including wrinkles, may develop along with worsening of adult acne in those affected by this condition. Since the body continues to produce small levels of the male hormone testosterone, some women may experience some hair growth on the chin, upper lip, chest, or abdomen.